Mental Factors - 52 Continue.....

Six Occasional or Particular Mental Factors (Prakiṇṇaka Chethasikas)

Six mental factors are called particulars for, unlike the universals, they need not exist in every chiththa.

01. Initial Application (Vitakka),

It is said that thinking is an effort made by the mind to know something. It is an attempt to bring the mind to a goal that has not come before. The Vithakka is that effort. That is the business. A mind is born with the purpose and clinging in it. There is no mind even before birth. It is also impossible for a born mind to come to another place for another purpose or divert into another purpose. Therefore, there is no doctrine or person outside the mind that has the power to direct a mind to a purpose.

The mind that has arisen without having anything before due to the causes, will cease when the causes finished. Therefore, there is no doctrine or person outside the mind that has the power to direct a mind to a purpose.

It should be noted that the “Vithakka” that brings the mind to the goal is not something outside of the mind, but a dharma that is born with the mind that comes to the goal and is inseparably bound to the mind. The mind and the Vithakka should be separated by the differences of their actions that comes from those two dharma. The mind is the initial purpose grasping movement. Vitakka is the movement that driving towards a goal that mind graspe.

02. Continued Application (Vichaara),

Continued application (vichaara), is the nature of behavior in the mind that has arrived at the beginning, as if we try to understand the thing that we got by pressing and touching it. It is called caressing or the doctrine of caressing. To know something that needs to be pressed. You have to touch and press the object. If it is not pressed, just reaching the hand will not lead to perfect knowledge of the thing. There must be the movement of coming to initiation and the movement of behavior in order for many minds to be able to aim at it.

Further, Behavioral business is something like touching or pressing or hugging action. If we say that the attendance of the purpose is the Initial Application[Vithakka]. The push-to-embrace movement is called critique.or the Continued Application[Vichara]. Out of these two Vithakka and Vichara factors Vichara iis of a more subtle nature. It is an act of Initial Application[Vithakka]. When the characteristics of the two factors of Vithakka and Vichara are mentioned in this way, One may feel like a doctrine that comes one after the other.  But it is not.

 Specifically, These two dharma are known only if you see two dharma together with the mind, They generate together, prevails together and vanish or expired together. Just as a two-wheeled cart cannot move with a single wheel, a mind cannot be born without one of the ideals that should join the mind. A Chaitasika can be born at the same time as the mind. There is no way that a born mind can join any dharma later. Therefore, the mind that deserves the support of Vithakka and Vichara should be born with both. The mind that deserves the support of both should be born with both.. 

03. Resolution (Adhimokka),

Resolution (Adhimokka), which prevents the mental factors from wavering and makes a decision.  Only one mind can be born at a time on one person or one generation of minds. There are many purposes in the world that can be taken by that mind. Their quantity cannot even be told. Among those many purposes, the birth mind should have a determination that this is the purpose it has taken. 

Obviously, without such a rule or judgment, the purpose cannot be properly understood. Not possible. The mind is the aim itself. The nature that judges the action that exists together with the mind is different from the mind. It is Adhimokka Chaithasika. Furthermore, if a person conducting an action of killing or Alms-givng, there can be a suspicious of will I do it or not?. when These kind of twofold mind occurred that action cannot be completed. 

Importantly, A causal mind must have a deterministic nature as opposed to a dichotomous indeterminate nature in order to be able to do so. The judgmental nature that comes from the active mind is also Adhimokka Chaithasika. If we say about Adhimokka Chaithasika in short, judging is its characteristic..


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04. Effort (Viriya),

Another important factor is Effort (viriya), which energizes the mental factors and opposes idleness. Just as the body gets tired and weak and felt like cannot work further, when performing difficult tasks in rigorous work continuously, yet the expected results not achieving people become lazy and tend to stop the work in the middle of it. From that the mind begins to slow down. “The cessation of the mind in the subject of action and retreating” means leaving the action that has begun and taking another path.

Similarly, When the body has become weakened and unable to function,at the time if it supported by food and medicine, it will be able to function again. Similarly, the mind gets some support from that, it will be able to move again. He is able to move to the task without stopping or retreating. Just like food supports a weak body, there is a spiritual doctrine that supports a weak mind. 

Consequently, This kind of will power Lord Buddha introduced as “Viriya”. It is not something that comes to the weak mind from another place like food comes to the body from somewhere else, but it is a dharma that is born with the mind and supports the mind. The one who does not stop what he started, who does the difficult things that not everyone can do, is called a hero. That heroism comes to the person because of the dharma that supports it without letting the mental continuity fall down. 

05. Joy (Pithi),

Joy (piiti), which creates an interest in the object, giving the mind buoyancy. It is the nature that fills the mind with happiness. It is like water bubbles creating on the surface of the rice in the rice cooker. The hot air coming from the bottom to top while creating water bubbles on the surface of the rice.  As the water bubbles are inflated by hot air, rising from the bottom of the rice cooker, very similarly when the joy occured in the mind the whole body inflated from the joy while enjoying the happiness. As a result of that like a balloon when it filled with air more tend to going up in the Air.   Because of its lightness the body become lightweight when filled with joy.

The inflated of the mind is said to be, a condition that should be called in the form of a inflated thing. Because of the joyful mind, an air generated in the body with a speed that inflates the body. Because of that gas, the body of the one whose mind is joyful also inflate. Joy is invisible to the eye. Even though, it can be easily understood by seeing and hearing the dancing, and laughter which results from the inflatedness of the body .

Joy (pãti) is a feeling of subtle and refined happiness and is similar to it. In Buddhist psychology, joy is seen as the result of virtuous living, a sign of successful meditation and as an indication of growing spiritual maturity. Many different types of joy are identified in Buddhism In the Visuddhimagga, joy is categorized according to its intensity and the effect it can have on the body.

Types of Joy

01. Minor joy (Khuddikà Pithi) – A weak pithi which only raises body hairs [goosebumps] is Khuddaka pithi. It breaks as soon as it is born.
02. Momentary joy (Kanika Pithi) – Kanika Peethia is joy that does not end at once and rises again and again like lightning in the sky.
03. Showering joy (Okkantikà Pithi) – As the waves of the sea break on the beach, the joy that spreads and breaks in the body is Okkanthika Pithi.
04. Uplifting joy (Ubbegà Pithi) – Ubbega joy is the powerful joy that is throwing over the body.
05. Pervading joy (Pharana Pithi) – Pervading the whole body is the supreme joy born by touching the whole body is called Pharana Pithi

06. Wish-to-do (Chanda),

Lastly, the “vote”[Chanda] is a “will”. Willingness to do. The meaning of the word will is very great. The will to see, the will to hear, the will to say, the will to think, the will to receive, the will to protect, the will to give, the will not to give, etc. should all be taken in the meaning of the word “will” to do. All that is taken from the words “will to do”. The Pali word[Chanda] for vote, and the Sinhala word[Kamaththa] for desire, are also used to mean lust. 

Even though, voting sentimentality[Chanda Chethasika] and passion[Thrushna] are two separate objective doctrines, similar words have been used to denote both of them so much. So that it is difficult to choose to separate them easily. Although the passions and voting are equal in the way of liking, it is the passion that inspires the desire, the love of the desire, the nature of the desire, but not the vote. “Vote[Chanda]” only want to carry out that meaning of the action. Voting is not antithetical to lust. It is also found in the greedy heart. Voting remains in accordance with the greed of greedy minds. 

Similarly, Jealousy abides in jealous minds. Dimensional mind remains in accordance with dimension. Conforms to the avarice of the avaricious mind. Compassionate hearts are in harmony with compassion. Gracious hearts remain in harmony with kindness. Further, Voting is born in greedy minds in accordance with greed, but when it is developed,  it is a doctrine capable of suppressing greed, which is stronger than greed. Improved voting leads to dominance and prosperity.


It is a vegetable. But people also used it to make a container. For that we need to dry this fruite. Then from the top make a hole and remove the pulp of the fruite. 

Twenty Five Wholesome Factors

Wonderful, beautiful mental factors. There are twenty-five beautiful factors. Nineteen are common to all beautiful thoughts, six are variable. The latter are the three “abstinence factors,” two “illimitables,” and the wisdom factor.

The common beautiful factors (Sobhanaa Saadhaaranaa) are as follows:

01. Confidence (Saddhaa),

Also called faith, Which for a Buddhist means trust in the Three Jewels, the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha, and in the principles of the Buddha’s teachings.

Furthermore, Admiration of the Buddhist objects to be believed, belief in the Buddhist objects is “Saddhaa”.  Admiration is the receptive nature. When the water is clear Shadows of nearby objects appear in the water like a mirror. Clear or pure water has a nature that accepts the shadows of objects, or a nature that allows shadows to enter. It is the charm of water. Similarly, there is a nature in the mind that allows access to the qualities of the Buddhas. It is the impression of the mind. Confidence is also about that impression.

Impression about below 8 things.

01. Confident about Lord Buddha
02. Confident about Dharma
03.Confident about Sangha Rathna
04. Confident about Tri Shiksha
05. Confident about past lives
06. Confident about the future
07. Confident about past and future
08. Confident about Patichcha Samuppadaya or Cause and Effect Doctrine

In the same way, Just like when King “Sakvithi’s”[ A Universal Ruler] “udaka prasadaka manikya” [It is a Gem that gives all kind of wishings expecting comfort things that fulfilling king’s thoughts ] was dipped in dirty water, the mud sevel etc. sank and water becoming very clear and pure. Similarly, It is the impression of the mind. As a result, they can give donations to those who have faith without hesitation. It is possible to maintain austerities. Meditation is possible. More merit can be done.

It is also a characteristic of “Saddha” that charity works in front of the subject. If he is a heroic man who comes to the crowd of people who are afraid to cross a river infested with evil animals and goes down to the river first, calls others and leads others to cross the river, Saddha is like him. When Saddha is presented in the subject of meritorious actions, the rest of the relevant chethacika’s engage in their own actions in accordance with it.

02. Mindfulness (sati):

This is alertness, which makes us aware of what is happening to us, Each and every moment to moment, through the five physical senses and the mind. Similarly, Mindfulness is essential to insight meditation, when it must be conjoined with a clear comprehension of the suitability, purpose, and conformity with reality of any action. Then it is called Right Mindfulness (Sammaa Sati). Usually the average person acts without any form of mindfulness, his acts are prompted by force of habit.

Specially, Right mindfulness has two functions. 

01. One is to increase the power of recollection and 
02. Secondly, To evaluate what is wholesome and what is unwholesome.
In addition, Right mindfulness is a spiritual faculty that maintains a proper balance of the other faculties — faith, energy, concentration and wisdom.

Furthermore, The nature of remembering merit party is the mindfulness. The mind of the unclean animal more tend to conduct evil actions itself. It is an extension of the unwholesome party itself. Just like a “Labu Kabala” drop into flowing water it floats without stopping down the river very easily, evil doer has easy walk in the evil acts . The mindfulness is stopped the evil party that floats like Labu Kabala and bring the consciousness to the Merit Party. Wholesome deeds are done by the animal, and the wholesome mind of the animal is due to that Sathi [Mindfulness] chethasika.

If any object is obtained, it is the nature or the practice of the animals with impurities [Keles] to use it for his own pleasure and to keep it hidden and protected. Giving it away as a sacrifice or favor is a different act to his nature. In order for the animal to have a mind to give that object to another, is not the nature and it is going away from the nature or the reality or the recovery. Rather than keep it for his pleasure or personal use letting it go, must also be a part of wholesome mind and It’s the Mindfulness or Sathi..

always keep reminding to engage in wholesome acts is the nature of the “Sathi”.

03. Shame of evil (hiri) 

The opposite of the second unwholesome mental factor, 

04. Fear of evil (ottappa)

The opposite of the Third unwholesome mental factor, 

05. Non-attachment (alobha)

Restrains attachment and fosters generosity.

06. Good-will (adosa)

Good will is synonymous with loving kindness (mettaa). It keeps a person free from resentment and anger.

07. Equanimity (tatramajjhattaa, upekkhaa)

Equanimity is balance of mind, a quality of neutrality free from attachment and repulsion.

08 to 19 The other twelve common beautiful factors fall into six pairs, one member affecting the “body” of mental factors (kaaya), the other affecting consciousness as a whole (citta). The six are as follows, the terms themselves indicating their nature:
A. Composure (passaddhi) of the mental factors and consciousness
B. Buoyancy (lakhutaa) of the mental factors and consciousness
C. Pliancy (mudutaa) of the mental factors and consciousness
D. Efficiency (kammaññataa) of the mental factors and consciousness
E. Proficiency (paguññataa) of the mental factors and consciousness
F. Rectitude (ujukataa) of the mental factors and consciousness

The abstinence factors (virati) restrain a person from committing evil acts. These are three in number:

20. Right speech (sammaa vacaa)

Right speech (sammaa vacaa) is abstinence from lying, slandering, abusive language, and idle talk.

21. Right action (sammaa kammantaa)

Right action (sammaa kammantaa)is abstinence from killing, taking what is not given, and wrong conduct with regard to sense pleasures.

22.Right livelihood (sammaa aajiiva)

Right livelihood (sammaa aajiiva) is abstinence from any livelihood that brings harm to other living beings.

The illimitable factors (appamaññaa) are compassion and sympathetic joy; they are called illimitable because they are boundless and extend to all living beings.

23. Compassion (karu.naa)

Compassion (karu.naa) has the nature of being moved by the suffering of others. The sadness we might experience over the suffering or loss of a loved one is not true compassion. Such sadness is sentimental, a manifestation of grief. Real compassion arises when the mind, detached from self-referential concerns, is stirred by the suffering of others, feeling the suffering as its own.

24. Sympathetic joy (muditaa)

Sympathetic joy (muditaa) has the nature of rejoicing in other’s happiness. Usually people rejoice at the success of someone who is near and dear to them, but it is rare for them to rejoice when success and prosperity are enjoyed by someone unknown, not to speak of an adversary. Muditaa embraces all beings and cannot coexist with the unwholesome mental factor of jealousy.
Compassion and sympathetic joy, together with goodwill and equanimity, form the Four Sublime Abodes (brahma vihaara). Goodwill and equanimity were mentioned under the common beautiful factors.

25. Wisdom factor (paññaa)

The wisdom factor (paññaa) enables one to see things as they truly are, that is, in the light of impermanence, unsatisfactoriness and selflessness.,


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